The Mughal period in Indian history had seen widespread cultural development, especially in the field of miniature paintings. These paintings are like binocular through which we can see the Medieval history of India. The introduction of new technique in the field of architect was also owns a noteworthy page in the history of
Abul Fasl, Presenting, Akbarnama.
Abul Fasl, Presenting, Akbarnama.
The Mughal Art in
The Mughal Art in
The second phase was during the rule of Emperor Akbar. The Akbarnama depicting the deeds of emperor is decorated by the illustrations painted by the miniature painters. But during this period the art of miniature painting in
The fourth phase of miniature art in the medieval
HEROIC DEEDS AS SUBJECT FOR MINIATURE PAINTING
Mughal Miniature Painting Depicting Life and Lifestyle of Indian Emperors and Kings, narrating the Heroic deed of Rajput kings and Mughal Emperors were the favourite subjects for the miniature artists.
Painting History of India in Colours
Mughal Miniature Paintings are the pictorial history of
Noble Mughal Lady
Mughal Emperors, along with contemporary Rajput kings, were fond of wars, women and wine. But they have saved a corner of their their hearts for the art of painting, too. This aesthetically rich part of their hearts have made them being remembered by the history of art. Influenced by pre-existing Persian Style of Miniature Painting, this art was mainly done for illustrations of the books in its initial spell. Afterwards the artists started painting subjects independent from the books. However they kept depicting mythological scenes from Indian scriptures and historical books. Artists depicted various themes and subjects, varying from time to time.
If we decide to classify the paintings of
History: The miniature paintings were done by Indian artists since many centuries; we can see some paintings done in sixth and seventh century, too. But the art of miniature painting reached its golden period during the reign of Mughal Emperors. Baburnama, Akbarnama, and Jahangirnama were the books narrating the heroic deeds of the emperors. The miniature paintings were done to illustrate the incidents narrated in these books. The miniature artists were impressed by the Sufi saints and Sufism, too.
The Art: When the influence and power of the Emperors of the Mughal Dynasty started decreasing, the art found its home in the palaces of the Rajaput Kings. These kings and princes were ruling the central and eastern parts of
The Materials: The miniature artists used materials easily available. During sixteenth and seventeenth century, the paintings were done on handmade papers, clothes, ivory slabs. These were the support generally used by the artists of the time. Miniature painters did the same. They also used the colours made from crouch, ivory, colourful pebbles available from the bed of the rivers, and indigo. They were used to extract juices from vegetables and made colours out of the same. The brushes they used were of the finest quality, as they need to paint very tiny things with precision. These brushes were made of the hair of horse, camel, sheep and goats, fox, sable, and squirrel.
Subjects and Themes of Miniature Paintings
Subjects painted and People depicted in these miniature paintings were generally the kings and emperors of the medieval
Sixteenth and seventeenth century would be recorded as the era of numerous wars on small scales, and big scams resulting in murders of brothers by brothers. But the scenes of battle field occupied by scattered had not prevented the kings and emperors to make their life style less entertaining. Their life was luxurious; their moods were sensual. They also wanted showing wealth and bravery they possessed.Many of the paintings narrated the characteristics of the warriors who fought battled. The show of elephants and horses used during wars was also a favourite subject of the artists and their sponsor rulers. Artists were also encouraged to depict the lifestyle of prices and princessess, too. All the subjects they painted were put in the visual forms through brilliant colours. Skilful use of dynamic lining work embedded very essence of the scene painted. (Image courtesy Wikimedia Commons)
Mughal Subjects: The artists who worked under the support of Mughal kings had limited choice in the field of themes to be adopted and selection of the subjects. Their focus was on doing illustrations for the books narrating the deeds of Emperors. Thus they painted the miniatures for the biographical books like Baburnama, Akbarnama, and Jahangirnama. The court scenes and portraits of prices and princesses were their additional subjects. However Emperor Akbar had allowed the Hindu religious events to be painted.
Rajaput and other Subjects: The Rajaput kings were following Hindu religion, so they preferred depiction of the incidents from scriptures of
The art of miniature painting was becoming a secular one. Hindu kings were adopting the Islamic subjects and the Muslim emperors were respecting the Hindu scriptures. Due to such changes in the concepts, the artists were inspired by scriptures and some of them were inspired by popular books of love poems like Geet Govind. Some of the artists concentrated on the classical tunes and evolved a new type of painting, Ragamala, based on Indian classical Ragas.
Schools of painting
During the period of eighteenth century and onward, many other Indian kings started supporting the miniature artists. This made the art getting pan Indian character. The artists functioning in different areas of the country acted with more freedom. Thus their arts can be identified by their special features they received from the local influences. There emerged numerous schools of painting during this period. Some of these schools are still functioning in
Mughal Period : When we talk about Mughal Paintings; we talk about Miniature Paintings. The term Mughal paintings refers to the Miniature Paintings done during the reign of Mughal emperors who ruled over India from 1920 to the 1957 when the British Army finally took over the reigns. The Mughal era of miniature paintings owns a noteworthy page in the history of art of paintings in
This book Baburnama or Babarnama is autography of the first Mughal Emperor Babur.Being himself a poet, he had written and assisted in writing the script of the book. We can se from the writing of the book that how learned man he was. Though he kept fighting many wars on the soil of
The Mughals - descendants of Timur and Genghiz Khan felt strong cultural ties to the Persian world and imported the same with their rule over
Akbarnama: After death of Emperor Babur, his son Humayun succeeded him. He saw many ups and downs in his career as an emperor; he lost wars and he won wars until he finally regained control of the capital of his empire,
After Humayun’s death, his son Akbar carried his noble intention towards the art of painting, making it a Art of Court. It was his period (1556 – 1605) during witch the art of miniature painting flourished in
One of the Mughal emperors, Humayun, was wandering in Iran after suffering a great defeat in Northern India. He was forced to live there for a period of about twelve years. During this time Humayun had seen Persian Miniatures and had been fond of the same. He developed a liking for elegantly painted Iranian Miniature Paintings.